The intangible in cultural landscapes: two world heritage examples
The Archaeological Park of Ollantaytambo in Peru and the National Park of Ordesa and Monte Perdido in Spain
Cultural landscapes have become a classi cation of cultural heritage of increasing use in the nominations to the World Heritage List. In spite of providing a framework for the integration of alternative understandings of heritage to Western tradition, the concept of cultural landscape itself originated from inside the frame of a naturalist ontology proper to Western philosophy. Even if cultural landscapes intend to integrate cultural and natural, tangible and intangible values, there is a lack of a model of protection designed for this integration. This paper examines two sites in mountain areas shaped by agropastoralist practices, but protected under two di erent models: the archaeological park and the national park. The purpose is to contrast the values «o cially» assigned to these sites as cultural landscapes to the local values encountered in the eld, in order to show the challenges for a comprehensive system of conservation that involves local communities.