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Cover 8/2003
Ausgabe 8/2003

Figures du cosmopolitisme
Formen von Kosmopolitismus

Koordination: Jean-Luc Alber
Seite 5
Jean-Luc Alber
Le cosmopolitisme en perspective
L’idée de citoyenneté du monde connaît ses premières formulations doctrinales dans l’Antiquité grecque d’abord grâce aux sophistes, puis dans la philosophie stoïcienne, et trouve son apogée au XVIIIe siècle avec la pensée des Lumières. Longtemps tenue à l’arrière-plan du discours contemporain, peut-être en raison de ses connotations obsolètes, la notion de cosmopolitisme connaît aujourd’hui un regain d’actualité. La remarque suggestive d’Ulrich Beck (2002) selon laquelle «nos racines sont devenues nos antennes» est symptomatique de ce retour sur le devant de la scène. Quelque peu délestée de son passé philosophique, cette abstraction imprécise, plus idéologique et morale que scientifique, offre un éclairage sur nombre de phénomènes liés à la globalisation du monde dans lequel nous vivons.
Seite 16
Jean-Luc Alber
Kosmopolitische Perspektiven
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Die Idee des Weltbürgertums erlebte ihre ersten Ausformulierungen in der griechischen Antike, zuerst durch die Sophisten und dann in der stoischen Philosophie. Seinen Höhepunkt erreichte der Kosmopolitismus im 18. Jahrhundert mit der Philosophie der Aufklärung. Nachdem er, vielleicht aufgrund der überkommenen Konnotationen, lange im Hintergrund zeitgenössischer Diskurse stand, gewinnt der Kosmopolitismus heute wieder an Aktualität. Die suggestive Bemerkung von Ulrich Beck (2002), dass «unsere Wurzeln nun unsere Antennen sind» zeigt die Richtung an. Entstaubt man ihn ein wenig von seiner philosophischen Vergangenheit, dann kann dieser unpräzise, eher ideologische und moralische als wissenschaftliche Begriff durchaus zur Klärung einer Reihe von Phänomenen beitragen, die mit der Globalisierung der Welt, in der wir leben, zusammenhängen.
Seite 28
Urs Marti
Kosmopolis – vom philosophischen Ideal zur politischen Herausforderung
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Cosmopolitan democracy seems to be a reasonable alternative to existing forms of global governance reflecting the interests of global capitalism and the G-8 countries. However, cosmopolitan visions in the history of philosophy are to a large extent limited to moral cosmopolitanism. From a contemporary point of view, it is important to define cosmopolitanism as an institutional project and particularly to redefine the procedures of cosmopolitan legislation as well as the conditions of a global citizenship that would be accessible to the underprivileged majority of the world’s population.
Seite 36
Heinz Käufeler
Ökumenen, Nischen, Module
Varianten kosmopolitischer Milieus
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Cosmopolitanism is a noble attitude, often evoked as an antidote against the perilous antagonisms of ethnic, religious or other identifications. However, for anthropology the virtues of cosmopolitanism have a dubious quality as they require a distancing from the local cultural and social backgrounds which we take for granted. Cosmopolitanism, it is argued, has historically emerged either in «ecumenes», i.e. particular Great Traditions with universalist claims but clearly marked off from other similar universes, or in niche societies like the so-called Levantines, a heterogenous collection of auxiliaries to occidental penetration in the Middle East. Retrospectively, the dissolution of this niche cosmopolitanism in national and subnational communities is deplored, while the elitist and «comprador» qualities of the Levantine universe tend to fade from sight. A contemporary cosmopolitanism, by contrast, would have to take its universalist commitments more seriously, and thus have to be based on «thin culture», on a truly «modular» social universe. The difference between this and «ecumene- cosmopolitanism» is not widely recognized, with the problem that pleas for «cosmopolitan virtues» often amount to a call for «them» to become more or less like «us».
Seite 48
Marie-Antoinette Hily et Christian Rinaudo
Cosmopolitisme et altérité
Les nouveaux migrants dans l'économie informelle
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh This article interrogates the notion of «cosmopolitanism» using field research that the authors conducted in a border- town market space: the market of Vintimille. The city of Vintimille is famous for its regional market where every Friday one can observe the convergence of hundreds of immigrant merchants from a great diversity of countries and regions (Senegal, China, Equador, India, Pakistan, North Africa, Eastern Europe, etc.). Some of these, like the Senegalese, are specialized in the illegal peddling of counterfeit brand names. More generally, in one way or another, all of the market exchanges in Vintimille concern individuals, groups and organizations that function or seek to function transnationally. Thus, the presence of these merchants sets in motion a complex hierarchy of belonging and affiliation, bringing together social groups that have historically been separated. According to the authors, two approaches are possible in the study of these trans- national «nomadic migrants». On the one hand, one can examine how this market organization contributes to the production and expression of a form of «cosmopolitan identity»; on the other hand, one can focus on the particular ways in which these migrants describe their social world and organize their activities within it on the basis of perceived cultural difference.
Seite 58
Till Förster
Stationäre Grenzgänger
Lokale Künstler und die internationale Kunstwelt in Westafrika
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh African artists work for a very heterogeneous public. They produce advertisements in the form of wall paintings and billboards, painting for the local middle- classes, and commissioned work for Church and State institutions. In addition, many of them seek access to international art markets. Some artists have developed strategies that allow them to participate simultaneously in local and global worlds. Some live part-time in the centers of the international art world, others travel frequently to African capitals, and still other remain at home, but are nonetheless present in international art circles. This article focuses on this last category of «stationary border crossers», and is based on fieldwork with artists from the Ivory Coast and Cameroon.
Seite 74
Shalini Randeria
Footloose Experts vs. Rooted Cosmopolitans
Biodiversity Conservation, Transnationalisation of Law and Conflict among Civil Society Actors in India
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh This article seeks to differentiate between the political practices of two kinds of civil society actors: «footloose experts» and «rooted cosmopolitans», whose relationships to the state, to international organisations and to local communities differ markedly. Using field- work material on conflicts around biodiversity conservation and forced displacement as played out in a World Bank financed project in Gujarat (western India), the article contrasts these two political visions of world citizenship and the associated understandings of the interrelationship of nature and society. It is argued that civil society must be seen as a site of conflict between these two competing styles of cosmopolitanism. Through a focus on the entanglement of a plurality of legal orders (local, national and transnational) which these actors invoke to legitimate their respective claims, it is shown how the local is situated in global processes. Methodologically, a case is made for an empirical grounding of studies of globalisation by a «studying through» of discourses and practices from the local to the translocal level. Different kinds of cosmopolitan actors play a pivotal role as translators and middle-men in this process.
Seite 88
Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan
Les institutions de développement
Un cosmopolitisme professionnel
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Starting from the description of a birth-control «sensibilisation» meeting in a Niger village, this article seeks to elucidate the particular form of standarised cosmopolitanism that is diffused more or less throughout the world by development organizations. These organizations form part of a vast «development configuration» with common characteristics that go beyond periodic shifts in development strategy, «in» policies and ideological differences. These common factors are an altruistic and modernizing meta-ideology, a dependence on techno-scientific knowledge, the export of social engineering and a specific «development language». However, as different segments of the development configuration come into contact with other «social worlds» they become partially undone by the plurality of contrasting logics they encounter. Finally, this plurality of logics and norms can be traced back to the heart of the development configuration itself.
Seite 100
Susanna Kumschick, photographies: Andreas Seibert & Basil Stücheli
Futon swiss made
Ein Bild-Essay über Schlafstätten in der Schweiz und in Japan
Lotus, Tami, Yume oder Chikarà sind die wohl- klingenden Namen, welche adaptierte Schweizer Futons heute tragen und damit an das traditionell japanische Original erinnern wollen – den fremdländischen Gebrauchsgegenstand, der durch seine Einverleibung in die westliche Schlafkultur nicht nur eine Transformation auf verschiedenen Ebenen erlebte. Als japanisches Artefakt hat er auch in einem intensiven kulturellen Austausch entstandene Bilder und Vorstellungen einer fremden Kultur mitgetragen.