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Cover 14/2009
Ausgabe 14/2009
Dossier

Les nouvelles arènes du politique
Die neuen Arenen der Politik


Koordination: Alessandro Monsutti, Boris-Mathieu Pétric
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Seite 6
Alessandro Monsutti, Boris-Mathieu Pétric
New political arenas: International and non-governmental organizations, foundations, think tanks
Introduction
Rarely used twenty years ago, the term «globalization» is now so widespread that it has entered into everyday language. Given the proliferation of the word and the different ways in which it is used, an attempt at clarification is indispensable. In the French-speaking world, the term mondialisation (from monde, «world») was initially preferred to describe the unprecedented expansion of the capitalist economy and communication systems on a worldwide level. It covered the movement of merchandise, but also the intensification of the movement of people and ideas. But the English term «globalization» is increasingly used in the relevant body of literature.
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Seite 17
Marion Fresia
L'action du Haut Commissariat aux Réfugiés au Sénégal: entre souveraineté transnationale et souverainetés locales
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Beyond the depoliticizing rhetoric on which they are based, humanitarian spaces constitute ideal places to question notions of power and sovereignty and to observe their informal and fragmented dimensions. Through an empirical account of UNHCR's programme in Senegal, the author explores how humanitarian action is based on contradictory dynamics that both reinforce and contest the sovereignty of the nation-state. In this article humanitarian spaces are not described as spaces of control and confinement nor as extra-territorial spaces but rather as new political arenas within which different powers and institutions attempt to reaffirm their authority by drawing on different sources of legitimacy (local, national or international). The observation of such dynamics leads the author to highlight how sovereignty as a stable and unique power remains a profoundly social construction and how processes of domination over displaced populations are not only driven by state interests and logics of containment.
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Seite 27
Birgit Müller
Comment rendre technique un débat politique
Controverses autour des biotechnologies agricoles au sein de la FAO
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh This article explores how the dispositif in which the policy guidelines of the FAO are embedded depoliticizes conflicts about property and control provoked by the introduction of transgenic plants. The organisation tries to neutralise the controversies surrounding GMOs by advocating consultation with and the participation of civil society organisations, thereby reducing political controversies to technical problems. What appears at first sight to be the anti-politics of the institution is, however, less its essence than a recurring practice. This practice will be studied «at work» when transgenic plants become the subject of political and economic contention as the first thematic issue of the State of Food and Agriculture 2003 / 04 focusing on the theme «Agricultural Biotechnologies Meeting the Needs of the Poor?» is produced and published.
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Seite 37
Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
Fondations politiques et démocratie aux Philippines: le modèle fédéral allemand à l'épreuve des îles
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh An impressive number of local and international NGOs are in operation in the Philippines and amongst these are some whose purpose is to support the democratic transition of the country. Based in Manila for approximately forty years now, the German Political Foundations are especially involved in the decentralising of the state, monitoring elections, backing municipalities and supporting the independence of the media. The KAS (Konrad Adenauer Stiftung), on which this article focuses, has also been involved in the peace negotiations of the Mindanao conflict. This crisis, stemming from the opposition of the Moro Muslim minority to a Christian-led government, represented an opportunity to try to export a German federal model in order to solve a regional problem. The proposal put forward did not, however, rally many people, instead being used by a tiny minority to confirm its opposition to a centralised form of government.
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Seite 47
Dostena Anguelova-Lavergne
Les think tanks: nouveaux acteurs du politique, entre local et global
Un exemple bulgare
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Think tanks first appeared in Bulgarian civil society at the beginning of the democratic transition in the 1990s. As militant organizations they were deeply involved in the structuring of a new political space in the country. Although remaining outside the electoral framework they played the role of «watch-dogs» when liberal reforms were introduced acting as the people's voice, on the one hand, and as the representatives of Western will, on the other. Being financed almost exclusively by foreign donors the support they give to political parties, actors and causes depends on the policies designed to assist democracy-building. This article focuses on the Centre for Liberal Strategies and on the role it played in the setting up of the first primary presidential elections in 1996. It describes the way think tanks helped introduce political technologies aimed at democratizing the country. The author thus questions the representative legitimacy of what is being undertaken by these new political actors.
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Seite 56
Michaela Pelican
Auseinandersetzungen um die Rechte indigener Völker
Das Beispiel der Mbororo in Nordwest Kamerun
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh This article discusses the problematic application of the concept of «indigenous peoples» in the African context. It critically considers the effects of international interventions aimed at reinforcing the realisation of the rights of indigenous peoples at the local and national level. The argument presented will be illustrated by means of a leadership succession dispute involving conflicting strategies.
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Seite 66
Shafqat Hussain
Religious sovereignty and transnationalism in a nation-state
Postcolonial identities in Northern Pakistan
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh This paper examines how the people of Hunza in Pakistan experience multiple claims of sovereignty, including religious claims, and how they respond to these in their everyday lives. The principal focus is on how Shimshalis perceive the role of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN). I argue that various social and economic development institutions of the AKDN claim both a «soft» (through its NGO network) and a religious (through the figure of the Aga Khan) form of sovereignty over the people by providing them with protection and welfare. By showing how the development institutions of the Aga Khan incorporate supra-national modernist discourse and practice I demonstrate how the analysis of sovereignty must extend beyond the boundaries of the nation-state in order to include networks of NGOs and religious authority, both of which the Shimshali people imbue with sovereign-like status.
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Seite 76
Eva Keller
Who are «they»?
Local understandings of NGO and state power in Masoala, Madagascar
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh In the wake of a global surge in biodiversity conservation activities, Madagascar has become subjected to «global environmental governance» with foreign NGOs playing a key role in this development. This article investigates how farmers who live next to a national park in Madagascar conceptualise new forms of conservation-oriented power. I show that, in contrast to conservationists, farmers do not think about the park in terms of conservation issues but rather in terms of the relationships between local people and outside powers, both Malagasy and foreign. In their intellectual analysis of the present situation, farmers make use of their understanding and memories of history, particularly that of the colonial period, thus connecting the present to the past. This leads some of them to ponder over fundamental issues of social life such as the nature of servitude.
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Seite 86
Tim Rothé
Représentation de l'autre et présentation de soi : un dialogue possible autour de la photographie ?
Pendant deux années, j’ai partagé le quotidien d’une famille résidant dans un quartier populaire de Dakar. Au début, ma démarche s’est réduite à un simple enregistrement du cours des choses. J’ai mangé chez eux. J’ai assisté aux fêtes religieuses. J’ai suivi ces hommes et ces femmes lors des réunions d’associations de quartier. Je les ai accompagnés dans leurs itinéraires thérapeutiques. A cette activité d’écoute et d’observation, j’étais incapable de donner une fin formelle. J’interrogeais le quotidien avec, comme plus fidèle compagnon, le doute. Procédant par tâtonnement, ma démar- che photographique fut plus intuitive que construite. Je m’imposais simplement une contrainte. Les prises de vue ne se feraient qu’au 24 mm. Cette focale supposait l’instauration d’une proximité en amont avec les membres de cette famille. Je ne voulais pas que l’image court-circuite le lent processus de construction du lien.
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Seite 124
Martina Kamm, Meinrad Schade
Vom Sprechen des Unaussprechlichen
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Wir begegnen ihnen auf der Strasse, an der Bushaltestelle oder beim Einkaufen. Sie sind unsere Nachbarn, wohnen im selben Quartier und gehen mit unseren Kindern auf denselben Spielplatz. Äusserlich unterscheidet sie kaum etwas von anderen Migranten und Migrantinnen, die ebenfalls in der Schweiz leben. Bei näherem Hinsehen jedoch verbergen sich hinter der Fassade Abgründe, welche diejenigen, von denen hier die Rede ist, in zweifacher Hinsicht zu Aussenseitern der Gesellschaft machen. Zum Einen entzieht sich das, was sie erlebt haben, weitestgehend der menschlichen Vorstellungskraft. Zum Anderen sind die Traumatisierungen, welche diese Menschen erlitten haben, fernab von der Schweiz geschehen. Beides macht es für die Betroffenen äusserst schwierig, über das Vorgefallene zu sprechen oder Gehör dafür zu finden.
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Seite 158
Michelle Engeler
Bilder von Staat
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Wir begegnen ihnen auf der Strasse, an der Bushaltestelle oder beim Einkaufen. Sie sind unsere Nachbarn, wohnen im selben Quartier und gehen mit unseren Kindern auf denselben Spielplatz. Äusserlich unterscheidet sie kaum etwas von anderen Migranten und Migrantinnen, die ebenfalls in der Schweiz leben. Bei näherem Hinsehen jedoch verbergen sich hinter der Fassade Abgründe, welche diejenigen, von denen hier die Rede ist, in zweifacher Hinsicht zu Aussenseitern der Gesellschaft machen. Zum Einen entzieht sich das, was sie erlebt haben, weitestgehend der menschlichen Vorstellungskraft. Zum Anderen sind die Traumatisierungen, welche diese Menschen erlitten haben, fernab von der Schweiz geschehen. Beides macht es für die Betroffenen äusserst schwierig, über das Vorgefallene zu sprechen oder Gehör dafür zu finden.
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Seite 104
Jérôme Beauchez
Corps à corps: une ethnologie des combats de boxe ordinaires
In the light of a pugilistic show whose media setting illuminates a micro-world of champions, this paper offers an ethnographical perspective on ordinary boxing matches. While the ethnography of these hand-to-hand combats and their locations - many boxing galas that took place in France and Germany will be examined - shows all the social levels involved in the combats, their depiction is intensified by discovering the background of carnal sociality through which individual fighting figures are sketched.
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Seite 113
Anahy Gajardo
Qui de la culture ou de la loi fait l'ethnie ?
Esquisse de réflexion en cours sur la (re)connaissance légale de l'ethnie diaguita
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Thought to have totally disappeared after the Spanish conquest, the Diaguitas were legally recognised as the ninth indigenous group in Chile in 2006. This text traces the process by which they made the transformation, in a little under ten years, from being invisible to becoming active players on the Chilean indigenous political stage. The text also analyses the territorial issues (which are at the heart of the tensions between the Chilean state and the indigenous organisations) which today divide the two principal Diaguita organisations in the Huasco-Alto region.
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Seite 136
Thierry Amrein
De la durée d'un terrain comme source d'incertitude
Un dispositif de formation spécifiquement conçu pour les femmes des vallées alpines et intitulé parcoursArianna s’est déroulé durant deux ans dans le Val d’Anniviers, en Valais (Suisse), entre début 2006 et fin 2007. Ses initiatrices partaient du constat que les femmes de ces régions étaient défavorisées en matière de formation et d’accès à l’emploi du fait de leur situation socio-géographique. L’objectif de la formation était d’offrir aux participantes les outils et le soutien nécessaires pour imaginer puis créer une micro-entreprise qui leur permette de concilier famille et travail professionnel tout en s’inscrivant dans le développement durable du territoire où elles vivent. Axée sur l’apprentissage et l’usage des nouvelles technologies, la formation était gratuite et destinée à toutes les habitantes de la vallée qui souhaitaient y prendre part, indépendamment de leur âge, de leur configuration familiale, de leur niveau d’études ou de connaissances et de leurs éventuelles occupations professionnelles actuelles.
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Seite 141
Sarah Beyeler, Virginia Suter Reich
Sichtbarkeit von Inkorporationsbedingungen
Ein Vergleich muslimischer Bauvorhaben in der Schweiz
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh Konflikte um den Bau von Moscheen treten in der Schweiz erst seit den 1990er Jahren auf. Heute gilt insbesondere das Minarett häufig als sichtbares Zeichen für eine als bedrohlich empfundene «Islamisierung» der Schweiz. Beispiele solcher Begehren jüngeren Datums in Wangen bei Olten (BE), Langenthal (BE) oder Wil (SG) veranschaulichen dies: An diesen Orten versuchten muslimische Gemeinschaften, ihre bestehenden Gebetsräume mit einem Minarett zu ergänzen. Vor allem in rechtskonservativen Kreisen formierte sich Opposition, welche als wichtigste Vermittlerin anti-muslimischer Propaganda und Polemiken die öffentlichen Debatten bediente. Die damit ausgelösten Kontro- versen liessen die Vorhaben zum Politikum werden. Die Argumente, welche lokale Projektgegner in Einsprachen oder politischen Petitionen einbrachten, stützten sich auf rechtliche Begleitfragen (Zonenordnung, Parkplatzfragen etc.) oder knüpften an den Diskurs um die wachsende Prä- senz des Islams in der Schweiz an (siehe etwa Granwehr 2008).
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Seite 147
Olivia Killias
Following the maid
Multi-sited ethnography in times of «transnational» domestic labour
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh In recent years, a growing body of anthropological literature has dealt with issues of migration, mobility and transnationalism, simultaneously reconsidering some of what have been regarded as core elements of the discipline; in particular, the idea of the classical, single-sited ethnographic «field», which has long been thought of as one of the main distinguishing features of anthropology and the central «rite de passage» for becoming an anthropologist, has been reassessed.
Ulf Hannerz and George Marcus were among the first to explicitly propose a methodological alternative to the institution of the field, namely multi-sited fieldwork. Yet, according to these authors, the practice of multi-sited fieldwork was not necessarily new as such and, especially in migration studies, it had been used quite extensively (see Marcus 1995: 106). Interestingly, studies on migrant domestic labour seem to have remained at the margins of these theoretical and methodological developments.
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Seite 152
Juliane Neuhaus
Women in village courts in Papua New Guinea
The transformation of gender roles
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh As for many African countries, the legally pluralistic architecture of family law in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has become a subject of controversy. My analysis of PNG’s village courts addresses scholarly debates about the subject. I use my empirical material to discuss two conflicting positions: 1) that male-dominated village courts contribute to the subjugation of women through the prescribed use of «custom»; and 2) that village courts form the only local dispute resolution forum in which women have a chance of their rights being acknowledged.
In my PhD project «Legal pluralism and the limits of state sovereignty: an ethnography of the local state in the Markham Valley, Papua New Guinea» I try to achieve a broad understanding of the various relationships between the forums for dispute resolution existing in the area. I focus on one forum in particular, that of the Nazab Village
Court among the Wampar. During the case collection process I concentrated on gender-related disputes rather than on quarrels about damaged gardens, stolen pigs, debts or land rights. My work is situated at the intersection of various debates on issues of legal pluralism, the anthropology of the state and women’s access to justice.
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Seite 172
Olivier Schmitz
Compte rendu : Doutes, croyances et divination
Marc-Antoine Berthod
Comment s’élaborent le discours et les croyances portant sur l’invisible? C’est à cette question que tente de répondre Marc-Antoine Berthod, à partir d’une enquête approfondie sur les conditions de production de la parole mantique de devins, médiums et autres extralucides. La divination a toujours été un objet privilégié par l’anthropologie qui a généralement vu dans ses pratiques un mode d’accès au monde invisible et, par là, la voie royale pour découvrir la nature de la pensée de l’Autre. Des travaux importants lui ont déjà été consacrés, sans pour autant, semble-t-il, que l’on ait épuisé sa richesse anthropologique. Mais cette fois-ci, il ne s’agit pas d’analyser les pratiques, les symboles et le langage divinatoire ayant cours dans une société extra-occidentale. L’auteur s’est intéressé à ces voyant·e·s professionnel·le·s qui proposent tantôt dans les rubriques spécialisées de la presse hebdomadaire des séances de voyance par lignes téléphoniques payantes, tantôt des consultations privées à domicile.
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Seite 174
Eva Keller
Rezension: People, protected areas and global change
Participatory conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe
Marc Galvin, Tobias Haller (Eds)
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh In den 1980er Jahren entwickelte sich in der globalen Naturschutzpolitik ein Paradigmawechsel weg vom fortress approach, der auf der vollständigen Ausgrenzung lokaler Bevölkerungen von Schutzgebieten basierte, hin zu einem community approach, der auf Partizipation der Bevölkerung und sozio-ökonomische Entwicklung der betroffenen Regionen setzt. Die 13 Beiträge in People, Protected Areas and Global Change – die mit einer Ausnahme (Kapitel 11) im Rahmen des nationalen Forschungspro- gramms NCCR North-South entstanden – gehen der Frage nach, ob und inwiefern sich diese grundlegende Veränderung in der Praxis tatsächlich manifestiert.
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Seite 176
Gaëlle Aeby
Compte rendu: La marque jeune
Marc-Olivier Gonseth, Yann Laville, Grégoire Mayor (Eds
kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh kjh De 2008 à 2009, certain·e·s d’entre vous ont peut-être découvert au Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel une exposition intitulée «La marque jeune». L’ouvrage qui l’accompagne permet à la fois d’approfondir les thématiques abordées et de (re)découvrir les images de l’exposition par de belles photographies des salles et des objets présentés.
Les concepteurs du projet, Marc-Olivier Gonseth, Yann Laville et Grégoire Mayor, nous proposent un parcours en six étapes afin de déconstruire la catégorie jeunesse et de comprendre les relations complexes entre jeunesse, contestation et consommation.
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