Shaykh et émir
Rapports hiérarchiques et rapports de pouvoir en milieu tribal
The aim of this paper is to discuss the past and actual forms of «power» and «power relationships» of the shaykh in comparison with those of the chief (emir). This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of «power relationships» by showing how these differ from the hierarchical relationships described by Louis Dumont (1966). After having delimited the political attributes of the shaykh, I will discuss the dynamics of power relationships from the following perspectives: a) How does one pass from a hierarchical relationship to a «real» power relationship? In other words, how does the power of the chief (emir) succeed the authority of theshaykh?; b) What are the dynamics of power relationships in tribal areas in the present day context? Or, more specifically, who is able to constrain or to subordinate who in the so called «tribal areas» nowadays?